Home Lifestyle Type 2 Diabetes – Everything You Need to Know in One Place !

Type 2 Diabetes – Everything You Need to Know in One Place !

by Paneeni Sharma

Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms  : Diabetes or Diabetes Mellitus is a disease in which the ability of the body to produce or respond to the insulin gets impaired which results in abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates and raised levels of glucthe ose in the blood.

Diabetes is classified into following types :

  1. Type 1 Diabetes or Juvenile Diabetes
  2. Type 2 Diabetes or Adult Onset Diabetes
  3. Gestational Diabetes or Diabetes During Pregnancy
Type 2 Diabetes

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  1. Type 1 Diabetes or Juvenile Diabetes
  • This is a chronic clinical condition in which there is very little or no production of insulin by the pancreas.
  • Prevalence – More than 1 million cases every year in India.
  1. Type 2 Diabetes or Adult Onset Diabetes
  • It is a chronic clinical condition in which there is an alteration in the way the body processes blood sugar or glucose.
  • Prevalence – More than 10 million cases every year in India.
  1. Gestational Diabetes or Diabetes During Pregnancy
  • It is a condition in which a woman with no history of diabetes develops high blood sugar levels during pregnancy.
  • Prevalence – More than 1 million cases every year in India.

Type 2 Diabetes or Adult Onset Diabetes is a very common disease in developing countries like India. India is even called as the diabetes capital of the world with as many as 50 million people suffering from Type – 2 Diabetes. Diabetes is one of most talked about diseases but ironically awareness about the same is very less.

Prevalence

  • Type – 2 Diabetes is very common disease and more than 10 million cases of Type 2 Diabetes are recorded in India every year.
  • India has 50 million people suffering from Type – 2 Diabetes.

Who Are More Prone To Develop Diabetes?

Factors which make a person more prone to diabetes include :

  1. Weight – If you are obese or overweight then you are at a greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes. This is because an excessive number of fat cells or fatty tissue in the body increase the resistance of cells against insulin.
  2. Fat distribution – It is seen that if your body stores fat primarily in your abdomen or in the other words that if you have central obesity then your risk of developing type 2 diabetes is much greater than if your body stores fat elsewhere, such as your hips and thighs.
  3. Inactivity – Individuals who are less active or those who love enjoying sedentary lifestyle are at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Physical activity can help you in controlling your weight, using up glucose as energy and making your cells more sensitive to insulin.
  4. Family history – Individuals whose parents or siblings have type 2 Diabetes are more prone to developing this disease.
  5. Race – Genetic preponderance of Type – 2 Diabetes is seen in people of certain races — like blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, and Asian-Americans.
  6. Gestational Diabetes – If a woman develops gestational Diabetes during her pregnancy than her risk of developing type 2 diabetes increases.
  7. Polycystic ovarian syndrome – PCOS increases the risk of diabetes.
Type 2 Diabetes 2

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Type 2 Diabetes Symptoms

Symptoms of diabetes include :

  1. Increased hunger (polyphagia) – This happens in response to the inability to meet energy requirements of the body due to inhibition of insulin.
  2. Increased thirst (polydipsia) – Increased level of sugar in the bloodstream causes fluid to be pulled from the tissues which may leave you thirsty.
  3. Frequent urination (polyuria) – Increased intake of fluid will increase the urge to urinate.
  4. Weight loss – Even after eating more than usual to relieve hunger, you may lose weight. This mainly happens due to the inability of the body to metabolize or break down glucose. To solve this problem body uses alternative fuels stored in muscle and fat.
  5. Fatigue – Person feels fatigue due to the deprivation of sugar or energy in cells.
  6. Blurred vision – This happens due to the inability of the eyes to focus.
  7. Slow-healing sores or frequent infections – A person suffering from Type 2 diabetes develops a weak immune system which hampers the body’s ability to heal and resist infections.
  8. Areas of darkened skin – This usually indicates the insulin resistance which gives rise to patches of dark, velvety skin in the folds and creases of their bodies usually in the armpits and neck. This condition is referred as acanthosis nigricans.

What will happen if I leave my diabetes uncontrolled?

Diabetes is a disease that is known to affect many major organs, including your heart, blood vessels, nerves, eyes, and kidneys. Early complications of diabetes may go unnoticed but if proper attention is not paid to control the blood sugar levels than long-term complications of diabetes develop gradually. These complications can eventually be disabling or even life – threatening. Some of the complications of diabetes include:

  1. Heart and blood vessel disease – Diabetes is known to increases the risk of various cardiovascular problems, like coronary artery disease (atherosclerosis), heart attack, stroke, narrowing of arteries and high blood pressure.
  2. Nerve damage (neuropathy) – Raised level of sugar can lead to the injury of the walls of tiny blood vessels (capillaries) that nourish your nerves, especially in the legs. This damage can cause tingling, numbness, burning or pain that usually starts at the tips of the toes or fingers and gradually spreads upward or towards the center of the body. Uncontrolled blood sugar can even cause you to lose all sense of feeling in the affected limbs. 3. Kidney damage (nephropathy) – Kidneys contain millions of tiny blood vessel clusters that helps in filtering the waste from your blood. Diabetes can cause damage this delicate filtering system. Severe damage to the filtering system can lead to kidney failure or irreversible end – stage kidney disease, which often eventually requires dialysis or a kidney transplant.
  3. Eye damage (Diabetic retinopathy) – Diabetes can even lead to the damage the blood vessels of the retina which can potentially lead to blindness. Diabetes also predisposes the patient to other serious vision conditions, such as cataracts and glaucoma.
  4. Foot damage (Diabetic foot) – In diabetes nerve damage in the feet or poor blood flow to the feet increases the risk of various foot complications. If any trauma or injury is left untreated then it can transform into serious infections, which may heal poorly. Severe damage to the foot might even require toe, foot or leg amputation.
  5. Hearing impairment – Individuals suffering from diabetes can develop hearing problems in long run.

 

What all lead to the development of Diabetes?

  1. Type 2 Diabetes develops when the body cells become resistant to insulin hormone or when the production of insulin is not enough to meet the requirements.
  2. Insulin is a hormone that is secreted from a gland known as pancreas which is situated behind and below the stomach.
  3. The pancreas secretes insulin directly into the bloodstream. This circulating insulin in the bloodstream enables the sugar to enter the cells.
  4. The main function of insulin is that it helps in maintaining the amount of sugar in the bloodstream.
  5. Glucose which is a sugar is a main source of energy for the cells. This energy is used by the body to carry out different types of activities.
  6. Major sources of glucose are food and your liver. The liver produces and stores glucose in the form of glycogen. This glycogen is broken down into glucose when the body doesn’t have enough glucose in conditions such as when you have not eaten in a while.
  7. Sugar is absorbed from food into the bloodstream, from where it enters the cells with the help of insulin.
  8. But when the body doesn’t have enough glucose then the liver comes into action and breaks down the stored glycogen into glucose to keep your glucose level within a normal range.
  9. In type 2 diabetes, this whole process is not executed well. Instead of moving into your cells, sugar level builds up in your bloodstream. When blood sugar levels increase, the insulin – producing cells in the pancreas start releasing more insulin. But with time these cells become impaired and can’t make enough insulin to meet the body’s demands.

Investigations

Almost all diabetes tests are now conducted on blood samples and the main types of diabetes blood tests include:

  1. Oral glucose – tolerance test – This is the test which is most commonly performed during pregnancy. This test is mainly done to see how your body is handling the glut of sugar.
  2. Fasting blood sugar – This test is commonly done because it’s easy to perform. This test is done to see whether your blood sugar is in the normal range or not.
  3. Two-hour postprandial test – This blood test is done two hours after you have eaten to see whether your blood sugar is in the normal range or not.
  4. Random blood sugar – This blood sugar test can be performed regardless of when you last ate a meal.
  5. Hemoglobin A1C test – This test is done to measure how much sugar is stuck to your red blood cells.

Management

Type 2 Diabetes 1

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Diabetes is truly a lifestyle disease which means this disease is linked to the way people live their life. Lifestyle diseases are commonly caused by alcohol, drug, and smoking abuse as well as the lack of physical activity and unhealthy eating. This means that a positive change or modification in the way a person lives his life can reduce the risk of developing diabetes.

  1. Dietary Approach

It mainly aims at avoiding sugar-containing food items. You should also avoid intake of bad cards and sugary drinks. You should try to focus on getting plenty of fiber through the plant – based foods. Intake of protein-rich diet should also be increased.

  1. Physical Activity

People who are overweight should follow a proper work out routine including exercises and walk for at least one hour. A regular workout can help in lowering the blood sugar, lowering the blood pressure, boosting your heart health and helping insulin work better in your body.

Diabetic Medication

Some individuals who have type 2 diabetes can achieve their target blood sugar levels only by following proper diet and exercise, but many also need diabetes medications or insulin therapy.

Diabetic medication prescribed by your doctor may include :

  1. Metformin (Glucophage, Glumetza, others) – This drug improves the sensitivity of the body tissues towards insulin so that body uses insulin more effectively.
  2. Sulfonylureas – These drugs help your body secrete more insulin.
  3. Meglitinides – These medications stimulate the pancreas to secrete more insulin.
  4. Thiazolidinediones – These medications work at making the body’s tissues more sensitive to insulin.
  5. DPP-4 inhibitors – These medications help in reducing the blood-sugar levels.
  6. GLP-1 receptor agonists – These medications slow down the digestion and help in lowering blood sugar levels.
  7. SGLT2 inhibitors – These medications work by preventing the kidneys from reabsorbing sugar into the blood.

 

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4 comments

Sreeparna Ganguly August 18, 2017 - 4:18 PM

Wow! very informative post.
Bookmarking the page because there is hereditary diabetes problem in my family..

Reply
Paneeni August 18, 2017 - 7:10 PM

Similarly like you, i also have family history of diabetes, this makes us even more prone to diabetes. This means we have to more cautious if we want to keep this disease at bay.

Reply
Sone August 18, 2017 - 6:00 PM

Paneeni, very detailed :haanji :good: :good:

Reply
Paneeni August 18, 2017 - 7:12 PM

Thank you mam??

Reply

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